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➔ Air pollution harms people and has damaging and toxic effects for plants, impairing agricultural productivity

➔ Not all emissions are toxic: CO2 is a natural ingredient in photosynthesis, and enhances plant growth in optimal conditions

➔ The positive effects of “carbon fertilization” are often cancelled out by negative effects of localized/regional air pollution

➔ Net losses are substantial; but as CO2 levels climb, so do positive effects on plant growth, and by 2030 will far outweigh harmful concerns linked to localized pollution, making the effect for agriculture the largest positive contribution of the carbon economy