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Confidence shows the level of coni dence that the research team attributes to the indicator, based on a multi-point assessment. Judgements are made in relation to the set of indicators that make up the Monitor assessment only; so, for example, the research team has more coni dence in indicators labelled "Robust" than in indicators labelled "Speculative". Some experts may however consider the robust indicators to still possess inadequate coni dence, or speculative indicators to exceed simple speculation. A 3-point scale is used to evaluate whether each criterion reviewed contributes or detracts from the overall level of coni dence. Confidence shows the level of coni dence that the research team attributes to the indicator, based on a multi-point assessment. Judgements are made in relation to the set of indicators that make up the Monitor assessment only; so, for example, the research team has more coni dence in indicators labelled "Robust" than in indicators labelled "Speculative". Some experts may however consider the robust indicators to still possess inadequate coni dence, or speculative indicators to exceed simple speculation. A 3-point scale is used to evaluate whether each criterion reviewed contributes or detracts from the overall level of coni dence. Severity shows the scale of the overall or absolute global impact of a given indicator and the breadth of effects internationally. "Major" impacts might involve, for example, tens of billions of dollars of economic damage or over 100,000 deaths on average per year. Other indicators estimate 
much lower levels of damage or even positive net impacts, in which case the severity may be assessed as "Minimal"

Affected Groups indicates the specific population segments or communities particularly affected or susceptible to the impacts of a given indicator. The groups may be socially, economically, geographically or otherwise dei ned depending on the impacts under examination. Injustice shows how unjust or not a given effect is on the global scale. It denotes the level of injustice of a specific effect or set of effects as they are assessed by one of the Monitor's indicators. Injustice is highest when the affected countries have least responsibility for climate change and at its lowest when impacts are shared the most among countries with high responsibility. The four-point score is dei ned by statistical quartiles, so the level of injustice is also relative only to the Monitor's Climate section indicators themselves. Responsibility for climate change is based on total country GHG emissions from 1990-2005 (Mueller et al, 2007). Priority shows the amount of support a specific effect area has received through international climate funding. It denotes the level of priority that the effect or set of effects assessed by one Monitor indicator has, as rel ected in international climate i nance expenditures for adaptation."High priority" denotes higher levels of funding from developed countries, targeting the issue in affected developing countries."Low" or"no priority" is given to concerns for which i nancial support has been marginal or virtually absent. The OECD Creditor Reporting System sub-sector l ows for 2010 have been used as the basis for the analysis (OECD CRS, 2012). High priority Low priority Not a priority The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) represent the international community's eight primary objectives for poverty reduction to be achieved by 2015. The MDG Effect indicates an impact for specific MDGs. One of the eight goals relates to an international partnership for development and is not relevant to the Monitor's impact analysis. Any of the other seven goals are highlighted whenever an indicator assesses a Climate or Carbon effect that is understood to specifically undermine one or another of these goals. (For more information on the MDGs visit: www.un.org/millenniumgoals) Millenium Development Goal (MDG): End Poverty and Hunger Millenium Development Goal (MDG): Achieve Universal Primary Education Millenium Development Goal (MDG): Promote Gender Equality Millenium Development Goal (MDG): Reduce Child Mortality Millenium Development Goal (MDG): Improve Maternal Health Millenium Development Goal (MDG): Combat HIV/AIDS & Infectious Diseases Millenium Development Goal (MDG): Ensure Environmental Sustainability
Severity shows the scale of the overall or absolute global impact of a given indicator and the breadth of effects internationally. "Major" impacts might involve, for example, tens of billions of dollars of economic damage or over 100,000 deaths on average per year. Other indicators estimate 
much lower levels of damage or even positive net impacts, in which case the severity may be assessed as "Minimal"

Affected Groups indicates the specific population segments or communities particularly affected or susceptible to the impacts of a given indicator. The groups may be socially, economically, geographically or otherwise dei ned depending on the impacts under examination. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) represent the international community's eight primary objectives for poverty reduction to be achieved by 2015. The MDG Effect indicates an impact for specific MDGs. One of the eight goals relates to an international partnership for development and is not relevant to the Monitor's impact analysis. Any of the other seven goals are highlighted whenever an indicator assesses a Climate or Carbon effect that is understood to specifically undermine one or another of these goals. (For more information on the MDGs visit: www.un.org/millenniumgoals)
ADDITIONAL ECONOMIC COSTS (MILLION USD PPP) CONTRACTION OF BIOLOGICAL ZONES (km²) (CUMULATIVE) DECLINE IN BIOLOGICAL RICHNESS
 COUNTRY     2010 2030 2010 2030 2010 2030
Afghanistan 3-0+ 80650-10,000-20,00070200
Albania 5-3- 40250-50-10090300
Algeria 75- 1501,000-55,000-100,0001040
Angola 3-0+ 4002,500-60,000-100,000200550
Antigua and Barbuda 88
Argentina 1-0+ 3,00020,000-35,000-70,000150400
Armenia 4+2+ 35250-700-1,50070200
Australia 5-5- 1,2502,250-50,000-100,000100350
Austria 75- 300800-1,000-2,00090300
Azerbaijan 4+2+ 2001,250-2,000-4,00080250
Bahamas 66 535-500-950150500
Bahrain 88
Bangladesh 66 20150-100-250150500
Barbados 88
Belarus 1-0+ 7004,250-550-1,25090250
Belgium 66 100350-350-75090300
Belize 0+0+ 15100-450-850150500
Benin 5-4+ 20100-6,000-10,000200550
Bhutan 0+0+ 45350-250-450150400
Bolivia 0+0+ 5004,000-35,000-65,000150500
Bosnia and Herzegovina 4+2+ 70500-1,500-3,00090250
Botswana 0+0+ 150750-1,500-3,000150500
Brazil 5-3- 3,50030,000-200,000-450,000150500
Brunei 5-4+ 20150-100-250
Bulgaria 4+2+ 2501,500-5,250-10,00090250
Burkina Faso 3-0+ 60400-4,500-9,250300950
Burundi 66 15-650-1,25050150
Cambodia 5-4+ 40450-1,500-3,000150500
Cameroon 4+2+ 85550-2,250-4,250150500
Canada 5-4+ 2,2504,000-60,000-100,0001030
Cape Verde 88
Central African Republic 0+0+ 35200-5,500-10,000150500
Chad 0+0+ 2001,250-20,000-40,000300900
Chile 3-0+ 8006,250-15,000-30,000100300
China 66 4,25045,000-60,000-100,00060150
Colombia 5-3- 6504,750-5,500-10,000150500
Comoros 99
Congo 2+0+ 80500-400-750150500
Costa Rica 65- 35300-700-1,500150500
Cote d'Ivoire 5-4+ 40250-3,500-6,750150500
Croatia 4+2+ 1501,250-1-590250
Cuba 65- 85650-2,250-4,250150500
Cyprus 5-3- 35100-55-10040150
Czech Republic 5-4+ 2501,750-750-1,50090250
Denmark 65- 150400-30-6090300
Djibouti 1-0+ 1075-550-1,250150500
Dominica 88
Dominican Republic 66 30250-3,750-7,250150500
DR Congo 4+1- 55350-20,000-45,000150500
Ecuador 5-3- 1501,250-2,750-5,250150500
Egypt 77 1060-25,000-50,0001030
El Salvador 77 15100-450-950150500
Equatorial Guinea 4+1- 60400-400-850150500
Eritrea 1-0+ 20100-2,750-5,750150450
Estonia 3-1- 85400-150-30090300
Ethiopia 4+2+ 1501,000-25,000-55,00070200
Fiji 5-4+ 535-50-9550150
Finland 65- 150400-2,750-5,2501040
France 75- 1,7505,000-15,000-25,00090300
Gabon 1-0+ 100650-4,000-8,000150500
Gambia 65- 520-200-400300900
Georgia 4+1- 55350-2,750-5,50060200
Germany 77 1,0003,000-1,250-2,50090250
Ghana 75- 55350-3,000-6,000150500
Greece 5-4+ 4001,250-3,750-7,25080250
Grenada 88
Guatemala 66 30250-1,250-2,750150500
Guinea 4+1- 30200-4,250-8,500200550
Guinea-Bissau 3-0+ 540-600-1,2503501,000
Guyana 0+0+ 65300-3,500-7,250150500
Haiti 66 120-200-400150500
Honduras 5-4+ 45350-2,500-5,250150500
Hungary 65- 150950-750-1,50090250
Iceland 5-4+ 2040-5-10100300
India 66 1,50010,000-15,000-30,000250800
Indonesia 65- 5003,750-5,000-10,000150500
Iran 3-0+ 3,25025,000-10,000-20,00030100
Iraq 65- 85650-2,750-5,5003080
Ireland 5-4+ 300550-350-65090300
Israel 66 30200-150-2502070
Italy 66 7002,000-8,500-15,00070200
Jamaica 66 540-400-750150500
Japan 66 9002,500-4,500-9,250100350
Jordan 66 535-550-1,0001040
Kazakhstan 1-0+ 9505,000-5,750-10,00050150
Kenya 5-3- 100700-950-2,00070200
Kiribati 99
Kuwait 99
Kyrgyzstan 0+0+ 90600-1,250-2,50060150
Laos 5-3- 30300-1,250-2,500150500
Latvia 2+0+ 150700-600-1,25090300
Lebanon 66 15100-65-1502070
Lesotho 5-3- 540-25-50100350
Liberia 5-3- 120-1,750-3,750150500
Libya 5-4+ 100750-40,000-85,0001040
Lithuania 3-0+ 2001,250-200-40090300
Luxembourg 66 1540-30-6090300
Macedonia 3-0+ 65450-2,000-4,00090300
Madagascar 4+2+ 40250-1,000-2,25050150
Malawi 65- 1060-600-1,25060150
Malaysia 75- 3502,750-7,000-15,000150500
Maldives 99
Mali 0+0+ 100750-20,000-40,000300950
Malta 88
Marshall Islands 88
Mauritania 0+0+ 70450-15,000-35,000250700
Mauritius 66 520-50-10050150
Mexico 5-3- 2,50020,000-50,000-100,000250800
Micronesia 99
Moldova 5-4+ 1585-300-65060200
Mongolia 0+0+ 1501,500-3,000-6,2502070
Morocco 5-3- 3002,000-10,000-20,00030100
Mozambique 2+0+ 80550-35,000-70,00060200
Myanmar 65- 45350-20,000-35,000150500
Namibia 0+0+ 100600-2,250-4,250100350
Nepal 65- 25200-200-400150400
Netherlands 77 150400-500-1,00090300
New Zealand 4+4+ 250400-50-100150400
Nicaragua 4+1- 40300-1,500-2,750150500
Niger 1-0+ 55350-20,000-40,000300850
Nigeria 65- 2001,250-5,250-10,000200550
North Korea 77 15150-1,750-3,50040100
Norway 75- 250500-500-9503090
Oman 4+0+ 2001,750-2,000-3,7503080
Pakistan 65- 3002,250-2,000-4,0003501,000
Palau 99
Panama 5-3- 75550-1,750-3,500150500
Papua New Guinea 2+0+ 65500-1,250-2,50050150
Paraguay 3-0+ 100900-10,000-25,000200550
Peru 3-0+ 8006,250-4,000-8,250150500
Philippines 66 95750-350-650150500
Poland 5-4+ 7004,750-2,500-5,00080250
Portugal 65- 200650-3,750-7,25070200
Qatar 99
Romania 5-3- 3502,500-200-35090250
Russia 5-3- 3,25025,000-70,000-150,0001030
Rwanda 77 110-650-1,25050150
Saint Lucia 99
Saint Vincent 99
Samoa 99
Sao Tome and Principe 99
Saudi Arabia 77 1501,250-15,000-25,0001040
Senegal 3-0+ 75500-3,250-6,5004001,250
Seychelles 88
Sierra Leone 5-4+ 540-600-1,250150500
Singapore 66 1070-15-30
Slovakia 5-3- 2001,250-450-90090300
Slovenia 5-4+ 75500-600-1,25090300
Solomon Islands 0+0+ 1080-75-15050150
Somalia 0+0+ 85550-15,000-30,000150450
South Africa 3-0+ 1,75010,000-5,250-10,000150400
South Korea 66 5004,000-550-1,000100350
Spain 5-4+ 1,5004,250-15,000-30,00080250
Sri Lanka 66 30250-1,250-2,750150500
Sudan-South Sudan 3-0+ 3002,000-45,000-90,00070200
Suriname 0+0+ 30150-2,750-5,500150500
Swaziland 5-3- 1055-45-9090250
Sweden 5-5- 400950-3,250-6,5003080
Switzerland 77 70200-300-600100300
Syria 5-3- 2001,500-1,250-2,25040100
Tajikistan 3-0+ 45300-450-85080250
Tanzania 4+2+ 150850-10,000-20,00050150
Thailand 65- 3502,500-7,750-15,000150500
Timor-Leste 3-0+ 1085-1,500-3,250150500
Togo 65- 530-450-950150500
Tonga 99
Trinidad and Tobago 77 545-200-350150500
Tunisia 5-3- 1501,250-4,000-7,7503080
Turkey 5-3- 1,5004,750-4,750-9,75040100
Turkmenistan 0+0+ 3502,000-8,000-15,00060200
Tuvalu 88
Uganda 65- 25200-250-50050150
Ukraine 4+2+ 7004,750-800-1,50090250
United Arab Emirates 66 20150-500-1,0002050
United Kingdom 66 1,0003,000-1,500-3,00090300
United States 5-4+ 25,00045,000-25,000-50,00070200
Uruguay 2+0+ 2001,250-400-800100300
Uzbekistan 5-3- 100850-7,250-15,00050150
Vanuatu 75- 15-30-6550150
Venezuela 5-3- 5504,000-25,000-55,000150500
Vietnam 77 70750-150-300150500
Yemen 4+1- 1501,250-3,250-6,50030100
Zambia 3-0+ 65400-85,000-150,00070200
Zimbabwe 0+0+ 75500-9,500-20,000150400
TOTAL80,300391,390-1,473,326-2,918,86518,06056,410